During his address at the “Samvad”- Global Hindu-Buddhist Initiative on Conflict Avoidance and Environment Consciousness (Sept. 3-5, 2015), Prime Minister Narendra Modi stated “Climate change is a pressing global challenge. It calls for a collective human action and a comprehensive response. In India, faith and Nature have had a deep link since ancient times. Buddhism and environment are deeply co-related.” He also went on to say “In this context, I want to say that we, the present generation, have the responsibility to act as a trustee of the rich natural wealth for the future generations. The issue is not merely about climate change; it is about climate justice. Again I repeat is not the issue of climate change, it is about climate justice………….We can’t let climate change keep affecting people in this manner. Which is why I believe the discourse must shift focus from climate change to climate justice.” 1
The nuanced position and repeated emphasis to move the discourse away from climate change to climate justice is a sophisticated comment from the Prime Minister of a country that is being talked about as a rapidly growing economy and hence potentially a large carbon emitter. The position has significance given that in around 3 months world leaders will meet in Paris for the UN Climate talks (yet again) to discuss the future of the planet. Is this articulation the foundation on which India’s climate change strategy is going to be built? Is India going to be a bold leader and change the course of the deliberations in Paris? Not so fast!
Juxtapose the comment on “climate justice” with an announcement made in the press by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (a Ministry whose policies will have strong implications for climate change) on the same day Sept. 3, 2015. The Government of India has decided to allow exploration of all types of hydrocarbons — oil, gas, shale (oil and gas), coal bed methane. It has decided to auction 69 marginal oil and gas fields of ONGC and Oil India thus opening up the oil and gas sector to investors from across the globe.
Included in this list are shale (oil and gas) and coal bed methane (CBM). These hydrocarbon resources are located both onshore and offshore. It is well established scientifically that extraction of both these fossil fuel sources (shale oil and gas and CBM) is ecologically damaging. The processes of extraction of these fossil fuels are resource (water and energy) intensive and extremely dirty both in terms of water and soil contamination. Their impact on groundwater resources and therefore the dependent life forms (human and non-human) are likely to be severe. No information has been released regarding the environmental regulatory mechanism that has been put in place to address these issues. Do the existing regulations have the capacity to understand and seek accountability for the potential impacts? How is India’s Climate Change strategy positioned in the context of this decision to explore and extract shale and coalbed methane? How this decision going to ensure “climate justice”? These are questions that will have to be pursued assiduously and posed to the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change as this process moves forward.
The pattern unfolding in India is not very different from what is happening in the United States. President Obama is visiting Alaska to highlight the dangers of climate change on the Arctic, its inhabitants and ecosystem. At the same time, the US administration has cleared explorations by Shell in the Arctic Ocean.
In both cases – is this climate justice? All this is happening just ahead of the Paris meeting on climate change. What does this mean in terms of India and the US’s official position at Paris? What climate justice are we going to see there?